Proposals for cooperation of the Institute of Irrigated Agriculture NAAS for optimization of systems of irrigated agriculture
Irrigation is the main factor of intensification of agriculture in areas with insufficient and unstable natural moisture. The formation of agrophytocenosis productivity of irrigated is a very complex process that depends on many natural and agro-technological factors. The solution of the food problem in the population growth of our planet and climate change requires a scientific substantiation and development of innovative technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops, a substantial increase in the productivity of plants, productivity of irrigation, its economic efficiency and environmental safety. Currently, the Ground is irrigated more than 300 million hectares, which is 18% of the total arable land, which produces more than 40% of all agricultural production, i.e. the productivity of one irrigated hectare is more than twice the output of crop production with not irrigated area. High efficiency artificial hydration leads to rapid growth of irrigated land area.
In case of unreasonable use of irrigation and of intensive technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops is a danger of a deterioration of the fertility of the soil, raising the groundwater level, contamination with toxic substances of crop production, deterioration of the ecological state of the environment. Therefore, agricultural science must focus on solving environmental problems of irrigated agriculture, rationing of irrigation regimes and fertilizers, organization and development of crop rotations with inclusion of perennial grasses, legumes and cover crops, use of integrated plant protection.
At the Institute of irrigated agriculture NAAS developed three main models of irrigation regimes that provide for local adaptation of technologies to specific soil, climatic and agrotechnological conditions:
- biologically optimal irrigation regimes – applies when the strategy aimed at growing the maximum possible yields of crops, including commercial, which provide the maximum net income per unit area of arable land;
- saving irrigation regime used in the shortage of agricultural resources for the optimization of irrigation in individual fields of crop rotations, or the adoption of the strategy for maximum ROI of irrigation water unit of the crop. Such irrigation regimes significantly reduce (to 20-30% and more) irrigation rate with a slight decrease in yield (5-10%). Implementation of resource-saving irrigation regimes are not only less water expenditure and also environmentally justified to reduce the anthropogenic load on the environment.
- conservation irrigation regimes – implemented with unsatisfactory meliorative condition of irrigated lands, the deterioration of soil fertility, long-term intensive irrigation, raising groundwater level, lack of drainage and the like. These irrigation regimes are characterized by a high level of environmental safety, have minimal anthropogenic impact on the environment.
Agrobiological important factor influencing the level of productivity of plants is the application of science-based crop rotations. With the increase in rotation specific weight of profitable crops (soybeans, corn, vegetables) there is an imbalance of the load on the irrigation system, particularly in July and August the need for irrigation water is increasing rapidly and it is 30-50% more than the technical ability of irrigated systems, and at other times of the irrigation season, on the contrary, they are underload, which adversely affects the efficiency of use of irrigation. For the purpose of conducting planning and operational management of the irrigation regimes of major crops in the Institute of irrigated agriculture NAAS developed program-information complex (PIC) “Module” which allows to optimize the structure of sown areas, given the parameters of the module, form not staffed and equipped graphics the irrigation regimes.
At cultivation of agricultural crops on irrigated lands the important value belongs to irrigation scheduling and optimization of production technologies for each field rotation. It is necessary to use a special computer program created at the Institute (PIC “Irrigation” PIC “Module”) or global developments that are adapted to local natural and economic conditions (program FAO – CROPWAT, AquaCrop, ETo Calculator), determine the water requirement for individual fields, taking into account the current scenario of meteorological conditions, provide a high accuracy of calculations, have economic and environmental benefits.
Optimization of technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops on irrigated lands requires the integrated use of modern information technology in both local and global levels. Computer agronomy is based on the use of geoinformation technologies in agriculture at state, regional, and local levels, as well as at the level of individual farms. Since the algorithms of the tasks at these levels are different, respectively, and vary the data and tools for working with them. When using products of the same family (e.g., AGS-GIS, AquaCrop-GIS) is provided as a vertical (between different levels of government) and horizontal (between farms or organizations of the same level) compatibility of databases and software products.
On irrigated land significantly increases the role and effectiveness of fertilizer application. The Institute developed a method of optimal parameters of fertilizer application, which allows on the basis of the results of agrochemical analysis to develop an optimal system of fertilizer for each field irrigated crop rotations taking into account the actual nutrient content in the soil and the magnitude of the planned yields. In addition, the results of many years of research the parameters of the optimal ratio of trace elements for each crop, providing the maximum level of productivity and significantly increase quality of crop production/
The use of irrigation in addition to positive impacts on crops at the same time causing the spread of water-loving species of pests, pathogens and weeds. Therefore, in the system of irrigated agriculture it is necessary to implement an integrated system of plant protection which envisages the application of complex of modern methods aimed at reducing the level of harmful organisms in agrocenose to economic-intangible through the development and introduction of ecologically safe and economically feasible measures. The main concept of such systems is to optimize the chemical method based on the criteria of expediency of use of pesticides, taking into account the size and structure of populations of harmful organisms in agrocenose, the availability of entomophages. Pesticides are used only on the basis of comprehensive data analysis phytosanitary surveys and assessment of threat levels from each of the harmful object.
Thus, irrigation requires science-based approaches to the development of farming systems at the local level taking into account the integrated impact of natural and agronomic factors. The use of information technologies and modeling technological processes allows to optimize the farming system, to develop and implement activities resourceusage, to increase the return on irrigation water, fertilizers and pesticides, enhance economic efficiency and to solve the environmental problems of the agricultural sector.
Institute of irrigated agriculture of NAAS
Ukraine, 73483, Kherson, sel. Naddnipryanske
tel. (0552) 361-196; fax (0552) 362-440